What you need to tell HMRC

What UK Virtual Assistants need to know about tax and National Insurance

When you decide that you’re going to become a Virtual Assistant and take over the Universe, one of the things you’ll need to do is tell the Government you’re no longer working for The Man but for many men (and women) instead. The information below is based on current UK tax laws so please check what your own government requires if you live outside of the UK.

* This post was last updated on 6th April 2021.

When do I contact HMRC?

You tell HMRC when you start earning income from freelance work even if you’re still being paid by your employer.

Should I set up as a Sole Trader or a Limited Company?

There are a few differences but the main one is that when you are a Sole Trader, any business debts become your debts and any personal assets – including your house if you own it – are not protected if someone decides to sue you.

With a Limited Company, the structure is different, tax thresholds and payments are different, how you pay yourself is different and you need to register your business with Companies House.

You do not need to register with Companies House if you are a Sole Trader.

In my opinion, it’s also more complicated to incorporate and submit your tax returns. I was advised to become a Limited Company after I bought my property but I was a Sole Trader before then.

I personally think it was easier being a Sole Trader and I now rely on my Accountant to help me.

As most UK VAs (and freelancers, in general) are Sole Traders, and because this post would be so long and complicated your head would explode, this post is focused on Sole Trader tax and National Insurance (NI) only.

How do I register as a Sole Trader?

If you start working for yourself in the UK you need to let HMRC know your situation has changed so they can update their records.

You do this by going online and completing this form. which registers you for self-assessment and National Insurance (NI) contributions.

HMRC will send your Unique taxpayer reference (UTR) to you within six weeks.

What’s the Unique Tax Reference for?

Your UTR is used to submit your personal tax return online.

After you register for self-assessment, you will be sent a letter that contains your UTR, then they will send you an activation code so you can sign up to the Government Gateway website and submit your tax return.

IMPORTANT – It can take a few weeks to get your UTR so never do this right at the end of January! Register as early as you can to allow plenty of time to receive your UTR so you can submit your tax return before the January 31st online submission deadline and avoid a fine.

Current tax rates and allowances

How much Income Tax you pay in each tax year depends on:

  • How much of your income is above your Personal Allowance.
  • How much of this income falls within each tax band.

Some income is tax-free.

The 2021/22 Personal Allowance (this is the amount you are allowed to earn before you have to pay tax on it) is £12,570. This amount is to be frozen until 2026.

Your Personal Allowance may be bigger if you claim Marriage Allowance or Blind Person’s Allowance and it’s smaller if your income is over £100,000.

Income tax rates and bands (2021/22)

The table below shows the tax rates you pay in each band if you have a standard Personal Allowance of £12,570.

This screenshot of figures was taken from the HMRC income tax rates page which contains other links you will find useful.

  • You may have tax-free allowances for your first £1,000 of income from self-employment which is known as your ‘trading allowance’.
  • You do not receive a Personal Allowance on taxable income over £125,140.
  • Income bands and rates are different in Scotland.

National Insurance contributions (NIC)

Self-employed people in the UK also pay either class 2 or class 4 National Insurance. This is a screenshot of the figures and thresholds for 2021/22 from the Simply Business website.

National Insurance is charged in one go when you do your self-assessment tax return rather than taken monthly.

Some self-employed people don’t pay National Insurance through self-assessment, but they may want to pay voluntary contributions. These people are:

  • Examiners, moderators, invigilators and people who set exam questions.
  • People who run businesses involving land or property.
  • Ministers of religion who don’t receive a salary or stipend.
  • People who make investments for themselves or others – but not as a business and without getting a fee or commission.

These people are probably not you, however!

Read more about National Insurance on the HMRC website.

Check how much you have paid in National Insurance Contributions.

What financial records should I keep?

It is a legal requirement in the UK to keep business records as evidence of what you’ve earned and what you’ve spent each tax year. HMRC could ask to look into your tax returns or claims and if they do they’ll want to look at your records of course.

You must keep records of:

  • All sales and income
  • All business expense receipts
  • VAT records (if you’re VAT registered)
  • PAYE records if you employ people
  • Records about any personal income
  • Cash books
  • Invoices
  • Mileage records
  • Bank statements and chequebook stubs
  • Your P60s if you’re also employed

When it comes to doing your tax return, you will also need to submit other info such as how much you have invested in your business as well as any money you have invoiced for but not yet been paid.

You can read more about what business records you need to keep here on the HMRC website.

How should I keep my financial records?

You should keep your records either on paper or on your computer. For electronic records you must:

  • Capture both sides of a document
  • Save all information in a readable format
  • Keep a back-up

Making Tax Digital (MTD)

Under MTD, the self-employed will be able to send HMRC summaries of their income and expenditure at least four times a year and submit quarterly tax returns through an online accounting platform such as Xero, QuickBooks, Sage, FreeAgent etc.

HMRC says this will enable a more ongoing and accurate projection of tax due, as opposed to the current system of one tax bill at the end of the year. I personally think it’s a good idea because it will allow you to make a more accurate financial forecast.

Although the UK government says that Making Tax Digital will not come into play until at least April 2023 – and they keep moving that date back –  it’s worth knowing what it is so you’re prepared for when it does come into force.

You can read an overview of Making Tax Digital here.

How long do I need to keep my financial records?

You need to keep business records for at least five years after the 31st January submission deadline of the relevant tax year.

Example – If you submitted your 2019 to 2020 tax return online by 31st January 2021, you must keep your records until at least the end of January 2026.

What happens if I lose an expense receipt?

If you don’t have a receipt for a cash expense then just make a brief note of the amount you spent, when you bought it, and what it was for.

What happens if my records are lost, stolen or destroyed?

If you cannot replace your records, you must do your best to provide figures. Tell HMRC when you file your tax return if you’re using:

  • Estimated figures – your best guess when you cannot provide the actual figures.
  • Provisional figures – your temporary estimated figures while you wait for actual figures (you’ll also need to submit actual figures when available).

How do I complete my tax return?

The UK financial year runs from the 6th of April to the 5th of April and HMRC will contact you to request you submit your return either by post by the end of October or online by the 31st of January.

You always submit financial figures for the previous tax year.

So, in October 2022 (if you’re filing a paper tax return) or January 2023 (if filing your return online) you submit your income and expenditure for the period between 6th April 2021 to 5th April 2022.

What happens if I miss the tax deadline?

Usually, if you miss the January 31st self-assessment deadline, you will receive a non-refundable £100 penalty – even if you do not owe any tax (I know, right?!).

However, this year you can submit your self-assessment up to the 28th of February 2022 without getting a late filing penalty.

Basically, as long as you receive a letter from HMRC telling you to file your tax return, you must comply even if you do not owe them anything.

If your bill is less than £30,000 you may be able to pay in monthly instalments, but you definitely need to let HMRC know if you are having trouble paying.

You have to pay ahead (payment on account)

You may not be aware of this, but you also have to pay a percentage of the next year’s tax and National Insurance in advance. So this is in addition to the tax you’re paying for the previous tax year.

Many freelancers get caught out by this.

HMRC take one payment by the end of January and another one in July. This is called ‘payment on account’ and these are advance tax and National Insurance payments towards your tax bill.

You have to make 2 payments on account every year unless:

  • Your last Self Assessment tax bill was less than £1,000.
  • You’ve already paid more than 80% of all the tax you owe, for example through your tax code or because your bank has already deducted interest on your savings.

Each payment is half your previous year’s tax bill. Payments are usually due by midnight on 31st January and 31st July.

If you still have tax to pay after you’ve made your payments on account, you must make a ‘balancing payment’ by midnight on 31st January next year.

More info on Payment on Account including examples. 

Key dates and deadlines

The UK tax year runs from the 6th of April to the 5th of April so your accounts need to be calculated from and to these dates.

So as of 6th April 2022, we are currently in the 2022/2023 tax year.

  • 31st January is the deadline for filing your online self-assessment tax return. It’s also the deadline for paying any income tax due, Class 4 NIC and your first payment on account for next year.
  • 6th April is when you can start submitting your next tax return if you like.
  • 31st July is the deadline for paying your second Tax on Account instalment.
  • 5th October – if you become self-employed you need to register with HMRC for tax purposes by this date.
  • 30th October is the deadline for paying your Class 2 NIC (National Insurance Contributions).
  • 31st October is the deadline for paper filing of tax returns.
  • 30th December is the date that if you’re also employed, you can choose to pay any tax due through your PAYE code instead of making a big payment on 31st January. (But only if you submit your tax return before 30th December.)

How’s your head doing? Exploded yet?


As you can see, UK tax laws are a complete ballache and things like personal allowances and NI rates usually change each financial year.

I’m afraid you do need to make sure you stay on top of this stuff because HMRC are serious folk and they do not take ignorance as an excuse.

Always check with HMRC if there’s anything you’re not sure about (I’ve provided a link to their online chat below) or pay an Accountant to make sure you’re compliant.


Disclaimer: I am not an Accountant and take no responsibility for the financial information published on this page. While I have obtained this information from official sources, please always confer directly with HMRC or a qualified Accountant.

Looking for legal contracts?

Whether it’s a client contract a DPA or website policies, you need to have the legal stuff in place so you don’t get sued or screwed!

Written by an international contracts lawyer specifically for VAs, all the docs are updated and resent to buyers free of charge any time the law changes.




Hi Jo, thanks for this. I’ve literally just submitted my tax return and i got totally caught out by the awful payment on account system. I had no idea about this and got a big shock. Should have read your blog post! Nightmare.

On NI contributions, you say ‘In addition to registering with HMRC for tax, self-employed people in the UK pay one of two types of NIC’. I had to pay both class 2 and class 4 contributions. They couldn’t give me a good reason for this.

Anyway thank you as always for helpful content.


Hello! I’m loving you blog, you have so many useful tips! But I do have a question: If I register as a sole trader only when I start to earn money, will I still be able to put on the expenses the things I adquired to start my business in the first place (like a laptop)?

Joanne Munro

Thank you! Yes, you can legitimately offset any pre-startup expenses against your turnover once the business has started trading, as long as such expenses were incurred within 7 years of the first day of business (as per s.61 of the Corporation Tax Act 2009). You can Google for more information but always secure your tax information from HMRC or a qualified accountant, though.


Thanks so much for sharing all this information. As a newbie to being self employed, it’s pretty overwhelming but I’ll be book marking this blog post for future reference 🙂



At what stage do I register my company? Straightaway or once I have my first client?

Joanne Munro

Hi Charlene, in the UK you only need to register a company if you are a Limited Company and you do this with Companies House. If you are just a Sole Trader (most freelancers are), you only need to register for Self Assessment once you start earning money. All the links are in the post and your first port of call should be the HMRC website. They have some great articles and are really helpful.



Loving your site, it’s full of useful tips!

I am a contractor (in project management as a PMO) and looking to become a VA – I already have a limited company, so could I just use this instead of becoming a sole trader?

Joanne Munro

You can indeed. I would speak to an Accountant though as you may need to inform HMRC that the nature of your business has changed.

Murray Baxter

Looking to start work in the virtual world. Would I still be able to claim for the purchase of a vehicle, even though I work at home? I know I can say I am out buying replacement paperclips, or visiting potential clients even, but would HMRC stand for this?

Joanne Munro

I don’t think so but I WISH it was so! It has to be something you ONLY use and need for work. I would ask HMRC directly as I’m not an expert in this I’m afraid. x


I would like to approach the world of VA and become one.
At the beginning I want also to keep my pwrt time employment, you know, just to not have too much pressure.
Do you think it’s possible to have both employed and self-employed works? And if so, how can I work out taxes and NI?

Thank you for your help.

Joanne Munro

Hi Isa, if you’re in the UK, you need to tell HMRC as soon as you start earning any money. You will do an annual online Self Assessment (you need to get your Unique Tax Reference first) and when it comes to the bit about earnings you complete how much you made as a Freelancer as well as your employment status. You can find details online by doing a Google search.

Although I know a little about this (I completed my first self assessment this way) I am not a legal expert and you should always take expert advice in all financial matters. My advice is to call HMRC and ask them what you need to do.

Kate Baldwin

P.s. Just to clarify, the “company” is a UK Virtual PA company, so they have the client base etc, and there is “virtual” office here where most of the PA’s work from in order to share tips and talk things through if needed. So it is a company, rather than setting up my own. It’s not totally home based, which for me is better. Thank you!

Joanne Munro

Hi Kate, I’ll be honest in that I have absolutely NO idea! I don’t want to give you false information so I would recommend asking on the VA Handbookers Facebook group as well as checking with HMRC (or equivalent) etc.

I think if you’re working Digital Nomad style then you pay tax in whichever country you’re registered in but I would always check anything legal with a financial and/or legal professional to cover yourself.

Kate Baldwin

Hi, I have found your website incredibly helpful. Thank you. I have worked across Europe and recently moved back from working in Singapore. I am now based in Cape Town and want to work as a Virtual EA. There is a company that is based in the UK but operates out of Cape Town (far cheaper which can of course be passed on to clients, plus only 1 hour time difference from the UK). However I’m unsure as to the tax/legal situation of being on a UK contract, but working out of a different country. Any suggestions or guidance? Thank you so much! Kate

Gemma Lloyd

I am looking to become a VA and have been researching how I can set myself up. I am currently living in France, as we moved here 18months ago with my husband’s work and will be returning to the UK in the future. Can I set up a UK business when I am not living in the UK? And do you think this would limit my success as I will find it hard to meet with clients face to face and be out of the country ?

Joanne Munro

Hi Gemma, I don’t actually know the answer to the first part f that question but HMRC or one of the VA’s on one of the VA LinkedIn groups might be able to help. With regards to meeting clients whilst out of the country, that is what Skype or Google Hangouts is great for.

I have a client who lives in France who I do events with and he does all of his work with Skype and Hangouts. He lives in the middle of nowhere and says his Internet connection is far quicker and stronger there than here. He does come to the UK now and again to meet clients and just puts the trip on his expenses – the great thing about France is that they’re an hour ahead, so when you come to the UK you arrive pretty much the same time you left!

I have clients I’ve never met and the whole point of being virtual is so you can work from anywhere in the world. I often work from a holiday destination and my clients have no idea where I am – nor do they care as long as I get their work done on time. If you have a reliable way of communicating then you can be wherever you like! x


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.